From Riot to Massacre: What’s in a Name?


Adams, Saundra. (2018).“ Oklahoma senator to announce official name change of the 1921 Race Riot Commission.” Tulsa News ABC.

Brophy, A. (2016). “When More than Property Is Lost: The Dignity Losses and Restoration of the Tulsa Riot of 1921.” Law & Social Inquiry, 41(4), 824-832. doi:10.1111/lsi.12205

Carlson, Marc. (1989). “The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921,” Bachelor’s Thesis, Oklahoma State University.

“Excerpt from the Final Report of the Grand Jury on the Tulsa Race Riot” (1921, June 25) in Race and racism in the United States : an encyclopedia of the American mosaic. Edited by Gallagher, Charles A. p 1463-1464.

Frank, Nehemiah. (2018, February 26). “Tulsa Race ‘Riot’ Commission is causing division in Tulsa” The Black Wallstreet Times. Last Updated on January 11, 2021. 

Fuller Studios. (2020). “Conversing: Phil Armstrong on the Tulsa Race Massacre.” Youtube.

Hirsch, James S. (2002) Riot and Remembrance: The Tulsa Race War and Its Legacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 


Krehbiel, Randy. (2018, Nov 27). “1921 centennial commission to replace ‘riot’ with ‘massacre’ in official title.” Tulsa World.

Magic City Books. (2020). Black Wall Street 100 – A Conversation with Hannibal Johnson. Facebook, recorded with Zoom.

Mann, Carol. (2019, May 13) “Massacre too inflammatory a description for 1921 race riot” [Letter to the Editor]. Tulsa World. Retrieved from 

Marshall, Kendrick. (2020, May 31). “Tulsa Race Massacre: For years it was called a riot. Not anymore. Here’s how it changed.” Tulsa World. Updated Jul 7, 2020. 

Matthews, Kevin. (2018, Nov 29) “Tulsa 1921 Race Riot Commission renamed Race Massacre Commission.” KJRH -TV Channel 2.

Redfearn v. American Central Ins. Co., 116 Okla. 137. (Supreme Court of Oklahoma 1926).

Ogletree, Charles J. Jr.(2009). “When Law Fails : History, Genius, and Unhealed Wounds after Tulsa’s Race Riot”,  in When Law Fails : Making Sense of Miscarriages of Justice, edited by Sarat, Austin. (New York: New York University Press). pg 50-70. 

Tulsa-Greenwood Race Riot Claims Accountability Act of 2007. 110th H. R. 1995. (2007). (Testimony of Olivia J. Hooker).